If your landlord wants you to leave
The law on residential tenancies means that private landlords, approved housing bodies (housing associations) and those who let student-specific accommodation must follow certain procedures before asking a tenant to leave rented accommodation. They must also give the tenant a minimum amount of notice, depending on how long the tenancy has lasted.
COVID-19 and renting
Since March 2020, there have been a number of different protections put in place to support tenants during the COVID-19 pandemic, see below.
In October 2020, an eviction ban was introduced for any period when people’s movement is restricted to 5 kilometres from their home as part of COVID-19 restrictions. For example, 5km restrictions applied from 31 December 2020 to 12 April 2021, so there was an eviction ban during this time and for a ten-day grace period after this. Any time these protections are in operation they have an ongoing effect on notice periods and the calculation of Part 4 tenancies. See Evictions when COVID-19 restrictions limit movement to 5km for more information.
There are also rental laws to protect tenants economically affected by COVID-19, who have fallen into rent arrears and are at risk of losing their tenancy. These protections include a rent freeze and a 90-day notice period when ending a tenancy. The protections became available on 2 August 2020 and now run until 12 January 2022, following changes and extensions brought in under subsequent legislation. Landlords and tenants must follow certain steps to access these protections, see Rent arrears due to the financial impact of COVID-19.
In March 2020, a range of protections were put in place for people affected by the pandemic under the Emergency Measures in the Public Interest (COVID-19) Act 2020. These protections, which included a ban on eviction notices and rent increases, have now expired. However, they still have an effect on notice periods and the calculation of Part 4 tenancies.
Terminating a tenancy
How easily your landlord can end your tenancy depends on the type of tenancy you have and how long you have been in the accommodation.
In all cases, if your landlord wants you to leave your accommodation, they must serve you with a written notice of termination - see 'Notice of termination' and 'Notice periods' below.
If you have a fixed-term tenancy, your landlord cannot normally end the tenancy unless you are in breach of your obligations – read more on the RTB's website.
However, if you do not have a fixed-term tenancy, the landlord can ask you to leave during the first 6 months without giving a reason. They must serve a valid written notice of termination, allowing a minimum 28-day notice period.
In the first 6 months, only 7 days’ notice is required if your behaviour is seriously anti-social or threatens the fabric of the property. See 'exceptions to required notice periods' below for more information.
After the first 6 months you get security of tenure rights, even if you have a fixed-term tenancy (of 1 year, for example). The security of tenure rights are in Part 4 of the Residential Tenancies Act 2004 and are generally known as Part 4 rights.
Under legislation introduced in October, an eviction ban automatically kicks-in any time people’s movement is restricted to 5 kilometres from their home, as part of COVID-19 restrictions. During these restrictions your landlord can still issue you with a notice of termination, but they cannot evict you except in limited circumstances. See our document Renting and COVID-19 for more information.
Ending Part 4 tenancies
Your tenancy is known as a Part 4 tenancy in the following situations:
- It started on or before 24 December 2016 and has lasted between 6 months and 4 years, or
- It started after 24 December 2016 and has lasted between 6 months and 6 years
After the first cycle (4 or 6 years) of your Part 4 tenancy has ended, you enter a new cycle – see ‘Further Part 4 tenancies’ below.
What is a valid reason for ending a Part 4 tenancy?
Your landlord can end a Part 4 tenancy only in the following circumstances:
- If you do not comply with the obligations of the tenancy, for example, by not paying your rent on time
- If the property is no longer suited to your needs, for example, if it is overcrowded
- If the landlord intends to sell the property within 9 months. However, this reason may not apply if the landlord plans to sell 10 or more dwellings in a development within a 6-month period – see ‘Restriction on terminating when selling multiple properties’ below
Your landlord can also end your tenancy for the following 3 specific reasons:
- If the landlord needs the property for their own use or for an immediate family member (this only applies to private landlords)
- If the landlord plans to change the business use of the property (for example, convert it to office use)
- If the landlord intends to refurbish the property substantially – see ‘Substantial refurbishment’ below
In all cases, the landlord must serve you with a valid notice of termination - see 'Notice of termination' below for more details.
Since 4 June 2019, if a landlord ends a tenancy because they are selling the property, changing its use, substantially refurbishing it, or because they need it for themselves or an immediate family member, and the property then becomes available for rent again, the landlord must offer it back to the tenant that had to vacate the property. This must be done within 12 months of the expiry of the tenants notice period.
Restriction on terminating when selling multiple properties
A landlord cannot terminate a Part 4 tenancy if they intend to sell 10 or more dwellings in a development within a 6-month period, unless:
- They can show that the market value with a sitting tenant is over 20% below the market value with vacant possession, and
- That preventing them from terminating the tenancy would be unduly onerous on them or would cause them undue hardship
This provision is often called the ‘Tyrrelstown’ amendment and it is provided for under Section 40 of the 2016 Act.
A tenancy can only be ended on this ground if the proposed works are substantial and require the property to be vacated. A landlord who intends to end the tenancy for this reason should refer to the RTB’s reference leaflet (pdf) and website for further information.
Under the Residential Tenancies (Amendment) Act 2019 the landlord must offer the property back to the original tenant when the refurbishment work has been completed. This requirement came into effect on 4 June 2019.
Further Part 4 tenancies
If your tenancy started on or before 24 December 2016: When the 4-year cycle of the tenancy has ended, a new tenancy starts, known as a further Part 4 tenancy. This tenancy will now last 6 years.
If your tenancy started after 24 December 2016: The further Part 4 tenancy will start when the first 6-year cycle of the original Part 4 tenancy has ended and it will last 6 years.
Ending a further Part 4 tenancy
The legislation originally provided that your landlord could end a further Part 4 tenancy at any time during the first 6 months without having to give a reason. This rule changed from 17 January 2017 and the landlord must provide one of the reasons listed in the ‘Valid reasons for ending a Part 4 tenancy’ section above.
Preventing a further Part 4 tenancy
If a landlord wants to stop a further Part 4 tenancy coming into existence, they can serve a notice during the original Part 4 tenancy, with the notice period expiring on or after the end of the tenancy. A notice served in this way should provide a reason for termination, but the reason does not need to be one of the above grounds.
Exceptions to Part 4 tenancies
If you are renting a self-contained flat or apartment in your landlord’s home, which was originally part of the main house, your landlord can choose to opt out of the Part 4 provisions. If your landlord wants to take this option, you must get notice of this in writing, before the start of the tenancy.
Tenants of certain dwellings let by housing associations (transitional dwellings) cannot gain the benefit of Part 4 rights.
Part 4 rights do not apply to tenants in student-specific accommodation even though other parts of residential tenancies legislation was extended to cover these tenancies in July 2019.
Notice of termination
If your landlord wants you to leave, they must serve you with a valid written notice of termination. The notice can be posted to you, be given to you in person or be left for you at your address. Emails and text messages do not qualify as valid notices of termination. If it appears that you are not living in the property, the landlord can affix the notice to the outside of the property.
There are a number of protections for tenants who have fallen into rent arrears due to COVID-19, and are at risk of losing their tenancy. Under these laws, landlords cannot serve you with a notice of termination for rent arrears due to the financial impact of COVID-19 unless you are given 28 days written notice. If you pay your rent arrears during the 28 days, you cannot be given a termination notice on these grounds. If you cannot pay the rent arrears in the 28 days, your landlord can issue you with a notice of termination, but you may be able to get an extended notice period of 90 days, if you complete the required steps, see Rent arrears due to the financial impact of COVID-19.
The landlord can serve a notice of termination for all other reasons.
Under legislation introduced in October, an eviction ban automatically kicks-in any time people’s movement is restricted to 5 kilometres from their home, as part of COVID-19 restrictions. During these restrictions your landlord can still issue you with a notice of termination, but they cannot evict you except in limited circumstances.
Read more in our document on renting and COVID-19.
What is a valid notice of termination?
The law sets down the requirements for a valid notice of termination. It must:
- Be in writing (an email is not sufficient)
- Be signed by the landlord (or an authorised agent)
- Specify the date of termination of the tenancy
- State that you have the whole 24 hours of the termination date to vacate the property
- Specify the date of the notice itself
- State the reason for termination, if a tenancy has lasted more than 6 months or is a fixed-term tenancy. (This does not have to be included in a valid notice of termination for tenancies in student-specific accommodation.)
- State that any issue as to the validity of the notice or the right of the landlord to serve it must be referred to the RTB within 28 days from the receipt of the notice.
The landlord must provide additional details in certain situations and, in some cases, a statutory declaration. The RTB provides sample notices of termination, giving the details required in each situation.
Notice of Termination Return Form
Your landlord must send a copy of the notice of termination along with a completed Notice of Termination Return Form (pdf) to the RTB within 28 days of the expiration of the tenancy termination date. You can find out more on the RTB One Stop Shop website.
If the property is being sold
If the landlord intends to sell the property within 9 months of the termination of your tenancy, the notice of termination must state that “The reason for the termination of the tenancy is due to the fact that the landlord intends to sell the dwelling, for full consideration, within 3 months after the termination of the tenancy”. The landlord must enter into a contract for sale within 9 months of the termination date. The notice must also include a statutory declaration stating the landlord’s intention to sell.
If the landlord is availing of the exception to the ‘Tyrrelstown’ amendment (see above) in order to terminate the Part 4 tenancy, the statutory declaration must also state that that the market value with a sitting tenant is over 20% below the market value with vacant possession, and that preventing him from terminating the tenancy would be unduly onerous on him or would cause him undue hardship.
The RTB’s sample notice of termination due to intention to sell contains the required information and a sample statutory declaration.
Since 4 June 2019, if a landlord ends a tenancy because they are selling the property and it becomes available for rent again, the landlord must offer it back to the tenant that had to vacate the property within 12 months of the expiry of their notice period.
If the landlord needs the property for their own use or for an immediate family member
If the landlord terminates your tenancy because they need the property for their own use or for an immediate family member, you must be given the following information in writing, along with the notice of termination:
- The person’s name, their relationship to the landlord and how long they will occupy the dwelling
- A statutory declaration stating that the landlord needs the property for their own use or for an immediate family member
The RTB’s sample notice of termination when the landlord needs the property contains the required information and a sample statutory declaration.
If the landlord is refurbishing the property
If the landlord intends to refurbish the property to the extent that it needs to be vacant, they must state the nature of the works in writing, along with the notice of termination. They must state:
- If planning permission is needed
- The name of the contractor (if any)
- The dates the intended works are to be carried out
- The proposed duration of the works
They must also include a certificate from a registered professional stating that:
- The works would be a health and safety risk to the occupants
- The property should be vacated while the works are being completed
- The length of time the property should be vacated in order to complete the works (this must be longer than 3 weeks)
See the RTB’s sample notice of termination due to intention to refurbish.
Since 4 June 2019, the landlord must offer the property back to the original tenant when the refurbishment works have been completed
If the landlord wants to change the use of the property
If the landlord intends to change the use of the property they must state the nature of the change in writing, along with the notice of termination. The notice must confirm that any necessary planning permission has been received. The RTB’s sample notice of termination due to change of use contains the required information.
From 4 June 2019, if the landlord ends a tenancy because they are changing its use, and the property then becomes available for rent again, the landlord must offer it back to the tenant that had to vacate the property. This must be done within 12 months of the expiry of the tenants notice period.
You can complain to the RTB if your landlord ends a tenancy because they are selling the property, changing its use, substantially refurbishing it, or because they need it for themselves or an immediate family member and:
- The property becomes available for re-letting and they do not offer you a tenancy
- They did not carry out the intention stated in the notice of termination
If the RTB upholds your complaint, it may direct the landlord to pay you damages or to reinstate your tenancy, or both.
Sample notices for termination in other situations
The RTB’s sample notices cover several other situations, for instance if the landlord is terminating your tenancy due to rent arrears. In this case you must have received a written warning notice at least 14 days before the notice of termination is issued – see ‘Notice periods’ below.
Sample notices of termination are also available for breach of tenant obligations and anti-social behaviour. There is also a sample notice for when the dwelling is no longer suited to your household’s needs. In this case, the notice must be accompanied by a signed and dated statement of the number of bed spaces in the property and the reasons why it is no longer suitable, having regard to the bed spaces and the size and composition of your household.
Slips or omissions
Section 30 of the Residential Tenancies (Amendment) Act 2015 deals with slips or omissions that are contained in the notice of termination or that occurred when it was served. This section provides that, when dealing with a dispute in respect of a notice of termination, an adjudicator (or the Tenancy Tribunal) may make a determination that such a slip or omission shall not of itself render the notice of termination invalid, if the adjudicator or Tribunal is satisfied that:
- The slip or omission concerned does not prejudice, in a material respect, the notice of termination, and
- The notice of termination is otherwise in compliance with the provisions of the Act
The 2019 Act provides that a ‘remedial notice’ can be issued that fixes the error with the original notice. For more information on remedial notices see the RTB’s website.
The length of notice required depends on the length of your tenancy and how you were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Residential Tenancies (Amendment) Act 2019 increased the notice periods for certain tenancies, with effect from 4 June 2019.
|Length of tenancy||Notice that the landlord must give|
|Less than 6 months||28 days|
|6 months or longer but less than 1 year||90 days|
|1 year or longer but less than 3 years||120 days|
|3 years or longer but less than 7 years||180 days|
|7 years or longer but less than 8 years||196 days|
|More than 8 years||224 days|
Notice periods and COVID-19
There are rental laws to protect tenants economically affected by COVID-19, who have fallen into rent arrears and are at risk of losing their tenancy. Under these rules, you cannot be served a notice of termination by your landlord because of rent arrears unless you are given 28 days written notice. If you pay your rent arrears during the 28 days, you cannot be given a termination notice on these grounds.
If your rent arrears are not paid within 28 days, you may be given a 90-day notice of termination. The termination date on the notice of termination cannot be earlier than 13 January 2022. You must follow the required steps to access this extended notice period.
If you are renting and have not been economically impacted by COVID-19, or if you have been affected but you have not declared this to the RTB or your landlord, your rights have largely returned to what they were before the pandemic.
However, there are some important changes:
- COVID-19 emergency periods are not counted as part of a termination
notice period. Therefore, the following emergency periods are not counted:
- 27 March 2020 to 1 August 2020
- 22 October 2020 to 1 December 2020
- 31 December 2020 to 12 April 2021
- If you are in rent arrears, you must be given a minimum 28 day period from the date specified in the rent arrears notice.
- A landlord must serve a copy of the notice of termination due to non-payment of rent on the RTB at the same time as the tenant. The notice period will only start once it has been served on both the tenant and the RTB. If it is not served on both the RTB and the tenant at the same time, it is deemed to be invalid.
Read more in our document on renting and COVID-19.
Exceptions to required notice periods
If you are not keeping your obligations, your landlord only needs to give you 28 days’ notice, regardless of the length of your tenancy. However, if your behaviour is seriously anti-social or threatens the fabric of the property, the landlord only needs to give you 7 days’ notice. Section 17 (1) (a) and (b) of the 2004 Act sets out the type of seriously anti-social behaviour for which a 7-day notice may be allowed.
Usually, if your rent is in arrears, your landlord must first give you written notification of the amount owing and must give you 14 days to pay the arrears. If you still have not paid 14 days after you got this notification, your landlord can then give you 28 days’ notice of termination.
However, if you are in rent arrears because of COVID-19, the process is different and the termination date on the notice of termination cannot be earlier than 13 January 2022. Read more in our document on renting and COVID-19.
Landlords and tenants can agree shorter notice periods than the minimum periods set out above, but they can only do so at the time they decide to terminate the tenancy. It is illegal to agree a shorter notice period at the start of the tenancy.
If your landlord locks you out or physically evicts you, you may be able to apply for an injunction to force them to let you back into the property or you may apply to the RTB to do so on your behalf. Similarly if your landlord cuts off water, gas or electricity, you may be able to take legal action to restore the supply. In either case, you should get legal advice and assistance before you proceed. Your landlord cannot remove your possessions from your home while your tenancy is still in existence (though after a tenancy has ended, a landlord is under no legal obligation to store or maintain belongings).
If your landlord is going to refer a dispute to the RTB, you should get advice about your situation from Threshold or a solicitor. The Free Legal Advice Centres (FLAC) operates a network of legal advice clinics throughout the State. These clinics are confidential, free of charge and open to all. Contact your nearest Citizens Information Centre for information on FLAC services in your area. FLAC also runs an information and referral line during office hours for basic legal information.
Residential tenancies legislation
The Residential Tenancies Act 2004 sets out the rights and obligations of landlords and tenants and introduced detailed rules about residential tenancies. It introduced the concept of Part 4 rights, to provide security of tenure to tenants who are in a tenancy for between 6 months and 4 years. It also detailed the required notice periods and the form that a notice of termination must take.
The Residential Tenancies (Amendment) Act 2015 amended the 2004 Act. It increased the required notice periods for terminating tenancies of 5 years or over and brought housing association tenancies under the remit of the Residential Tenancies Board (RTB). The 2015 Act also requires landlords to provide extra documentation when terminating a tenancy in certain situations - see ‘Notice of termination’ below.
The Planning and Development (Housing) and Residential Tenancies Act 2016 contains several amendments to the residential tenancies legislation. It extended the period of a Part 4 tenancy from 4 years to 6 years for tenancies created from 24 December 2016 and removed the provision that allowed a landlord to end a further Part 4 tenancy during the first 6 months without having to give a reason. It also included measures to prevent the simultaneous serving of termination notices on large numbers of residents in a single development
The Residential Tenancies (Amendment) Act 2019 made more changes to the 2004 Act. The 2019 Act increased the notice periods needed when a landlord terminates a tenancy for tenancies over 6 months and less than 5 years – see ‘Notice periods’ below. It also amended some of the obligations and procedures that a landlord must follow when terminating a tenancy, and brought student-specific accommodation under the remit of the RTB. Read more about legislative changes under the 2019 Act on the RTB’s website onestopshop.rtb.ie.
The Law Reform Commission has produced a consolidated version of the 2004 Act incorporating all amendments in effect on the date it was last updated.
What tenancies does the residential tenancies legislation cover?
A private residential tenancy means a tenancy that is agreed privately between a landlord and a tenant. It covers tenancies under the Housing Assistance Payment (HAP) and the Rental Accommodation Scheme (RAS). If you are getting Rent Supplement, you are probably renting from a private landlord, so you will also be covered by the residential tenancies legislation. Since April 2016, the legislation covers housing association tenancies, and since 15 July 2019 it also covers student-specific accommodation. However, there are some differences in how the legislation is applied to housing association and student-specific tenancies.
If you are renting from a local authority, you are not covered by this legislation. See Repossession of rented social housing for information on procedures that local authorities must follow if asking their tenants to leave.
If you are renting a room that is part of your landlord's home, your tenancy is not covered by this legislation. However, if you are renting a self-contained flat or apartment in your landlord’s home, your tenancy is covered. See our document on sharing accommodation with your landlord for more information.