How to make a complaint
When you buy goods, services or digital content or services, you have rights and protections under Irish and EU consumer law. However, things can go wrong after buying something and you may want to complain to the seller.
If you have a problem with a product or service, or you feel you were treated unfairly or misled, you should:
- Check that you have proof of purchase
- Always go back to the seller first
- Try to sort the problem with the seller as quickly as possible. A delay could affect the outcome you get (for example you might only be entitled to a repair instead of a refund)
If you cannot resolve the problem directly, you can get help and advice from consumer protection organisations (see ‘How to take my complaint further’ below’.) You also have other formal options to help resolve a dispute with the seller, including the small claims procedure.
This page explains the steps to take to resolve your general consumer complaints. See ‘More information’ below for help with complaints for specific sectors or topics.
Check you have a case against the seller
Before you make a complaint to the seller, you should:
- Find out about your rights
- Make sure you have a valid reason to complain
- Make sure you have proof of purchase
- Gather documentation and evidence of the problem
- Decide the outcome you want
Find out about your rights
You can read more about your consumer rights.
The Competition and Consumer Protection Commission (CCPC) also has more information about your consumer rights.
Make sure you have a valid reason to complain
Before you complain, you need to check whether the seller is responsible for fixing the problem.
You need to check that you have a valid complaint. This means that there is a law that gives you grounds to make a complaint.
It is not always straightforward to work out whether you have a valid reason to complain and it depends on the facts of each case. But in general, you have valid reason to complain if:
- Something you bought doesn’t work
- A service is not provided in line with the contract you made with the trader
- Something has not been delivered on time
- You have been misled by the seller or an advert
Some things may not be covered, for example:
- You didn’t use a product in the way it was intended
- A product stopped working because of normal wear and tear
- You tried to repair it yourself
- There are superficial faults that you should have spotted when you bought the product
- You were told about a defect before you bought the item
- You did not install a digital update that was needed for the product to work properly (the seller must supply the required updates for the duration of the contract)
Gather documentation and evidence of the problem
Before you start, gather all the facts, any receipts and other documentation about your complaint, including:
- Proof of purchase: you must be able to prove that you bought the products or services. Proof of purchase can be a receipt, a credit card statement, or an order or booking confirmation
- Evidence of the problem: for example, photographs or video (particularly useful when proving the date of when and how a problem occurred)
- Guarantee or warranty: you must be able to provide proof that your guarantee or warranty is still in date and covers the issue. You can read more about guarantees and warranties
Decide the outcome you want
Before you approach the seller, think about what it is you want them to do to fix the problem. This could be:
- An apology
- A replacement
- A repair
- A refund
- A price reduction
How should I complain to the trader?
If you want to complain, you should always approach the seller first, to give them the chance to put things right.
Start with an informal approach
Talking face-to-face or over the phone can be a good first step in raising your problem with the seller. Ask to speak to a supervisor or manager who can sort out the problem for you (for example by repairing or replacing the good or refunding your money).
In some cases, the seller might offer other ways of making an informal complaint, for example through a customer care email, an online contact form, or web chat. If you use web chat, take screenshots in case the company does not keep a record of what was said.
Always keep notes of what happened, including dates and times of conversations, the name of the person you spoke to, and what was agreed. Keep previous correspondence (for example, email, web chat, and online contact form) safe as you may need this if you want to take your complaint further.
Make a formal complaint
If the issue is still not resolved, you should put your complaint in writing (letter or email) stating all the facts of the case so far. You should include any relevant documents that support your complaint (copies only).
You should include the following in your complaint:
- Description of the product or service - order or booking number, batch codes, serial number or other features
- Quote your reference or account number, if you have one
- The date you bought the item and when the problem started
- The steps taken so far, including when you first made a complaint and who you spoke to
- If you can, refer to the law or a description of your rights and how you want the issue to be put right
- The next steps you will take if you are not satisfied with the response you get from the seller (for example, reporting it to an enforcement body or taking legal action)
If you are unsure of what to include or need help writing a formal complaint, you can use the CCPC’s complaint template letter.
Check you are sending the complaint to the right person or department. You can find contact details in the customer care section of the website, the company’s complaints procedure or in the contract terms and conditions. If not, phone the seller directly and ask for the name and address of a contact person.
Keep a copy of the complaint letter or email as you will need this if you decide to take your complaint further. It is a good idea to send the letter by registered post or attach a read receipt to your email. This means you have proof that you sent the complaint and it was received by the seller.
How do I take my complaint further?
If the seller takes too long to resolve your complaint or you are not satisfied with the response, you can get help and advice from an independent consumer protection organisation.
Some organisations also provide dispute resolution services. This means that they can step in to help you resolve the dispute with the trader. Other organisations have the power to prosecute against traders or recommend the actions the trader must take.
You can contact the Competition and Consumer Protection Commission (CCPC) for general consumer advice and support.
There are other independent bodies who deal with specific industries, including:
- Air passenger rights (cancellation, delay or denied boarding: The Irish Aviation Authority (IAA). The IAA has taken on functions previously held by the Commission for Aviation Regulation (CAR)
- Financial services: the Financial Services and Pensions Ombudsman (FSPO)
- Communications or postal services: Commission for Communications Regulation (ComReg)
- Energy or water services: Commission for Regulation of Utilities (CRU)
The Office of the Ombudsman has a useful guide on Ombudsman Offices in Ireland (pdf). It can help you identify the correct ombudsman to deal with your complaint.
Other options to consider
In some cases, you can:
- Contact the card provider and request them to reverse the transaction, if you paid by credit or debit card. This is known as chargeback. Some other payment methods also provide protection schemes (for example, PayPal buyer protection). The CCPC has more information on chargeback.
- Use out-of-court procedures such as the Online Dispute Resolution (for national and cross-border online disputes)
- Take a claim against the seller using the small claims procedure. For cross-border disputes within the EU, you can use the European small claims procedure.
You can read about specific complaints topics:
- Complain about a financial services firm
- Complain about utilities
- Complain about phone, internet or TV
- Complain about advertising
- Complain about media
- Complain about professional services
- Complain about medical professionals
- Complain about a taxi
- Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
- Online Dispute Resolution (ODR)
- Small claims procedure