Protection for whistleblowers
The Protected Disclosures Act 2014 aims to protect people who raise concerns about possible wrongdoing in the workplace. The Act, which came into effect on 15 July 2014, is often called the whistleblower legislation. It provides for redress for employees who are dismissed or otherwise penalised for having reported possible wrongdoing in the workplace.
The Act’s definition of the term worker includes:
- Employees or former employees
- People working under a contract for services
- Independent contractors
- Agency worker
- People on work experience and the Gardaí
The legislation does not specifically cover volunteers, although many public bodies will continue to investigate reports of wrongdoing from volunteers as if they were protected disclosures. The volunteers, however, do not benefit from the Act’s protections.
Before the 2014 Act came into effect, some sectors, such as health, were already covered by protected disclosures legislation – see ‘Further information’ below.
Future legislative developments
The European Union is currently enacting legislation which, if enacted, will broaden the scope of the Protection Disclosures Act 2014 in relation to reporting of breaches of European Union law. When enacted, member states will have 2 years to bring the enhanced provisions into effect.
What is a protected disclosure
Under the Act, you make a protected disclosure if you are a worker and you disclose relevant information in a particular way. Information is relevant if it came to your attention in connection with your work and you reasonably believe that it tends to show wrongdoing.
Wrongdoing is widely defined in the Act and includes:
- Commission of criminal offences
- Failure to comply with legal obligations
- Endangering the health and safety of individuals
- Damaging the environment
- Miscarriage of justice, misuse of public funds
- Oppressive, discriminatory, grossly negligent or grossly mismanaged acts or omissions by a public body
- Concealment or destruction of information about any of the above wrongdoing
Wrongdoing can take place in or outside the State.
If it is the worker’s or the employer’s role to detect, investigate or prosecute any wrongdoing or if the wrongdoing reported relates to a person other than the employer, then it is not a wrongdoing for the purpose of the Act. For example, a member of An Garda Síochána who reports wrongdoing by a person outside of An Garda Síochána will not be covered by this Act, as the wrongdoing will not have been committed by his employer.
Even if the information is proved to be incorrect, you are still protected by the Act provided you had a reasonable belief in the information.
A grievance is a concern an employee has about their terms and conditions of employment, working procedures or working conditions. For example, if you have a complaint around selection criteria for a promotional position or if you have a complaint around the allocation of overtime. Generally, grievance dealt with through an internal grievance procedure. However, some grievances may also be protected disclosures and therefore are more appropriately dealt with in accordance with the Act.
In general, people who receive protected disclosures or who subsequently deal with them cannot disclose any information which may identify the person who made the disclosure. There are some exceptions to this, for example, if identifying the whistleblower is essential to the effective investigation of the matter or is required in order to prevent crime or risks to State security, public health or the environment.
You can report a concern in different ways– to your employer, to a prescribed person or to an external person. Different standards apply depending on the person or body to whom you disclose. The Act sets out a tiered disclosure system to ensure that most reports are made to the employer.
Disclosure to your employer
The simplest form of disclosure is to your employer. In this case all that is required is a reasonable belief that the information disclosed shows or tends to show that the wrongdoing is occurring. If you are or were employed in a public body, you may report to the relevant Minister.
Disclosure to a prescribed person
You may choose to report to one of the prescribed persons listed in Protected Disclosures Act 2014 (Disclosure to Prescribed Persons) Order 2020.
In general, prescribed persons have regulatory functions in the area which are the subject of the allegations. Examples are the Central Bank, The Health and Safety Authority and the Data Protection Commission. You can get a full list of prescribed persons by sector on gov.ie. This list will help you find the right person or body to report to.
A disclosure you make to a prescribed person is a protected disclosure if:
- You reasonably believe that the relevant wrongdoing is within the remit of the prescribed person and
- The information you disclose and any allegation in it are substantially true (this is a higher standard than is required for disclosure to your employer)
Disclosure to an external person
A disclosure made to an external person, for example, a journalist, may be a protected disclosure if it meets a number of conditions:
- You must reasonably believe that the information disclosed, and any allegation contained in it, are substantially true
- You must not make the disclosure for personal gain
- The making of the disclosure in public is in all the circumstances,
At least one of these conditions must be met:
- At the time you make the disclosure you must reasonably believe that you will be penalised if you make the disclosure to the employer, a prescribed person or a Minister
- Where there is no relevant prescribed person, you reasonably believe that it is likely that the evidence will be concealed or destroyed if you make the disclosure directly to your employer
- You have previously made a disclosure of substantially the same information to the employer, a prescribed person or a Minister
- The wrongdoing is of an exceptionally serious nature
The assessment of what is reasonable takes account of, among other things, the person the disclosure is made to, the seriousness of the wrongdoing, and whether any action was taken in cases where a previous disclosure was made.
Redress for employees
The Act provides for redress for employees who are penalised because they made a protected disclosure. You are penalised if there is any act or omission that is detrimental to you, for example, dismissal, unfair treatment or threats of reprisal.
A disclosure is assumed to be protected until it is proved that it is not protected. Under the Protected Disclosures Act, the employer has to prove that the disclosure is not protected within the meaning of the Act.
Dismissal after making a protected disclosure
If you are dismissed from your employment because you made a protected disclosure, that dismissal is regarded as unfair. You may make a claim for unfair dismissal and if your claim succeeds, you may be awarded compensation of up to 5 years’ pay. (Generally, the maximum compensation in unfair dismissal cases is 2 years’ pay).
Unfair dismissal protection does not generally apply to employees with less than 1 year service, trainees or Gardaí. These restrictions do not apply where the dismissal is because of making a protected disclosure. (The restriction on members of the Defence Forces continues to apply).
Your motivation for making a protected disclosure may affect the level of compensation you are awarded. If the investigation of the wrongdoing was not your only or main motivation for making the disclosure, then the compensation awarded to you may be up to 25% less than it would otherwise be.
Penalties other than dismissal
If you make a protected disclosure, your employer is prohibited from penalising or threatening to penalise you or causing or permitting anyone else to do so. If you are penalised or threatened, you may make a complaint to the Workplace Relations Commission using the online complaint form available on workplacerelations.ie. You should make a complaint within 6 months (although this time can be extended to 12 months if there is a valid reason for the delay).
The adjudicator's decision on your complaint may require your employer to take a specific course of action and may award you compensation.
You or your employer may appeal the adjudicator's decision to the Labour Court. The Labour Court may refer a question of law arising in the case to the High Court. The High Court’s decision on the matter is final. You or your employer can appeal the Labour Court’s decision on a point of law to the High Court. Again, the decision of the High Court is final.
The Act provides for immunity from most civil actions for damages – in effect, you cannot be successfully sued for making a protected disclosure. You can sue a person who causes detriment to you because you made a protected disclosure. However, you cannot do this and also look for redress under the unfair dismissals legislation or make a complaint to the Workplace Relations Commission. If you are charged with unlawfully disclosing information, it is a defence that you were making what you reasonably thought to be a protected disclosure.
How to make a complaint
If you want to report a concern, you can do this in different ways– to your employer, to a prescribed person or to an external person. – See ‘Reporting concerns’ above.
You can get information on your rights and entitlements under employment legislation from the Workplace Relations Commission.
The Transparency Legal Advice Centre (TLAC) provides free legal advice to anyone who wishes to disclose wrongdoing, particularly under the Protected Disclosures Act. You can access this via the Speak Up helpline on 1800 844 866.
Public bodies such as government departments, local authorities and certain other publicly-funded bodies must establish and maintain a whistleblowing policy that covers procedures for the making of protected disclosures by current and former workers and for dealing with such disclosures. The public bodies must provide their employees with written information relating to these procedures. They must also publish an annual report setting out the number of protected disclosures made to them and the action taken.
There is no similar obligation on private sector employers. The Workplace Relations Commission has published the Code of Practice on Protected Disclosures Act 2014 , which includes a sample policy. It sets out in practical terms how a disclosure might be made and how an employer ought to handle such a disclosure.
Other legislation that protects whistleblowers
Before the Protected Disclosures Act 2014 came into effect, some sectors were already covered by whistleblowing legislation.
The Health Act 2004, as amended by the Health Act 2007, provides for the protection of employees and members of the public who disclose possible wrongdoing within the health sector.
The Protections for Persons Reporting Child Abuse Act 1998 provides protection from victimisation and civil liability for people reporting the abuse of children.
The Charities Act 2009 provides for the protection of people who report alleged breaches of the legislation to the Charities Regulatory Authority.
There are also arrangements in place in a number of other sectors. These sectoral arrangements are generally not limited to disclosures by employees but may also cover disclosures by members of the public. These sectoral arrangements remain in place but are now covered in some respects by the Protected Disclosures Act 2014.