Becoming an Irish citizen through naturalisation
What is naturalisation?
Naturalisation is the process through which a foreign national living in Ireland may apply to become an Irish citizen. To apply for naturalisation in Ireland, you must have been physically resident in Ireland for a certain length of time.
All applications to become a naturalised Irish citizen are decided by the Minister for Justice and Equality. The Minister has absolute discretion as to whether or not to grant naturalisation. There are strict rules about applying for naturalisation as an Irish citizen and these rules are set out below.
You must use the current versions of the application forms on the INIS website - see 'How to apply' below. There is an application fee of €175 - see 'Rates' below.
Public Services Card: Since 19 September 2016, if you are applying for naturalisation and you are resident in the State, you must be registered with the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection for a Public Services Card.
Who is eligible for naturalisation?
If you wish to become an Irish citizen through naturalisation, you must:
- Be 18 years or older (you must be married if you are under the age of 18) or,
- Be a minor born in the State (from 1 January 2005) and
- Be of good character - the Garda Síochána (Ireland's national police) will be asked to provide a report about your background. Any criminal record or ongoing proceedings will be taken into consideration by the Minister for Justice and Equality in deciding whether or not to grant naturalisation. Details of any proceedings, criminal or civil, in the State or elsewhere, should be disclosed in the application form, and
- Have had a period of 365 days* (1 year) continuous reckonable residence in the State immediately before the date of your application for naturalisation and, during the 8 years preceding that, have had a total reckonable residence in the State amounting to 1,460 days* (4 years). Altogether you must have 5 years (5 x 365 days*) reckonable residence out of the last 9 years - see ‘calculating reckonable residence’ below, and
- Intend in good faith to continue to reside in the State after naturalisation and
- Make a declaration of fidelity to the nation and loyalty to the State, and undertake to observe the laws of the State and respect its democratic values (see below for the point in the process at which this is required).
*You must add 1 day for any period which includes 29 February.
Normally, when you apply for naturalisation you must be supporting yourself and your dependants while living in Ireland - see 'Self supporting' below.
The Minister for Justice and Equality has power to waive one or more of the conditions for naturalisation in the following circumstances:
- If you are of Irish descent or of Irish associations or are a parent or guardian applying on behalf of a minor child of Irish descent or Irish associations
- If you have an entitlement to Irish citizenship if you were born on the island of Ireland
- If you are a naturalised parent applying on behalf of a minor child
- If you are the spouse or civil partner of an Irish citizen or a naturalised person
- If you have been resident abroad in the public service
- If you are recognised as a refugee (under the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees) or a stateless person (under the 1954 UN Convention regarding Stateless Persons).
In the case of a refugee, stateless person or a person of Irish associations, the Minister will normally waive 2 of the 5 years' reckonable residence requirement.
Calculating reckonable residence
Reckonable residence means periods of residence taken into account when examining an application for naturalisation. Certain periods of residence may be excluded from the reckoning when calculating periods of residence in the State. These are periods when your presence in the State was not properly documented or (in certain cases) periods covered by a permission to remain that was for study purposes or while having a claim for asylum examined. You can use the online residency calculator on the INIS website to check if you meet the naturalisation residency conditions.
EEA nationals: All the time that a EEA or Swiss citizen has spent in the State is reckonable for naturalisation purposes as EEA and Swiss citizens are not required to have residence permits or documents under the European Communities (Free Movement of Persons) Regulations 2015.
However, EEA or Swiss citizens cannot use the residency calculator to prove residence as their passports are not stamped with immigration permission stamps. Instead, they must send various documents with their naturalisation application to prove the length of their residence in Ireland, see ‘Documentation’ below for details. The European Economic Area (EEA) comprises the EU member states, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein
Non-EEA nationals: If you are not an EEA or Swiss citizen, any time when you did not have permission to remain in the State will not be counted as reckonable residence. Registration with immigration is the evidence of legal residence which meets the residency requirements for naturalisation. The following periods of residence will not be reckoned if the permission to remain was:
- For the purposes of study (that is, you were on a student visa) whether or not that study involved you being employed during any of the period of study, or
- Granted while your claim for asylum was being examined, if the claim was not granted.
A person granted refugee status can apply for citizenship through naturalisation once they have acquired 3 years of reckonable residency. Residency is calculated from the date of arrival in the State. A person can be absent from the State for up to 6 weeks in total in any one year without it having any effect on their application.
In general, apart from refugees and stateless persons, applicants for naturalisation must prove they can support themselves and their families while living in Ireland. If you can show that you have not received State support in the 3 years before your application, this will generally meet the Minister for Justice and Equality's requirement that you have been supporting yourself and your dependants and that you will continue to do so.
How your application for naturalisation is processed
You will normally be informed within a week whether your application has passed the initial processing stage. If your application passes the initial stage, it is then processed further along with all other applications that are on hand. You will be given a reference number and you should quote this number when making queries either by phone or in writing.
For incorrect or incomplete applications, the process is longer, but you can keep it as short as possible by replying quickly to any queries. If further documentation or clarification is needed, you will be asked for it once processing of your application has begun.
You will be informed by registered post as soon as a decision has been made on your application. Generally most applications will be processed within 6 months.
Certificate of naturalisation
If your application is approved, the letter notifying you of this decision will contain instructions about the final procedures that must be completed before the certificate of naturalisation can be issued. When you submit the required documentation and certification fee, you will be invited to a citizenship ceremony at which you will be granted your certificate of naturalisation.
You are an Irish citizen from the date of issue of the certificate and you can apply to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade for an Irish passport any time after that date. The certificate of naturalisation is written in Irish. The English version is Form 11 in the schedule of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship (Amendment) Regulations 2011.
The Minister for Justice and Equality can revoke your certificate of naturalisation if:
- You obtained it through fraud, misrepresentation or concealment of material facts or circumstances
- You have, through an overt act, failed in your duty of fidelity to the nation and loyalty to the State
- You were ordinarily resident outside Ireland (other than in public service) for a continuous period of 7 years and, without a reasonable excuse, did not register your name and a declaration of your intention to retain Irish citizenship with an Irish diplomatic mission or consular office or with the Minister for Justice and Equality on an annual basis - see 'How to apply' below.
- You are also, under the law of a country at war with the State, a citizen of that country
- You have, by any other voluntary act other than marriage or registration of civil partnership, acquired citizenship of another country.
Before revoking your certificate of naturalisation, the Minister for Justice and Equality will inform you in advance, stating the reasons why the certificate is being revoked and your right to apply to the Minister for an inquiry into the reasons for the revocation. If you apply for an inquiry into a decision to revoke your certificate of naturalisation, the Minister will refer your case to a Committee of Inquiry, which will report its findings to the Minister. A notice of the revocation of your certificate of naturalisation will be published in Iris Oifigiúil (Ireland's official State Gazette).
The fee for each application for naturalisation is €175.
The following are the relevant fees to be paid when the certificate of naturalisation is issued.
|Application on behalf of a minor||€200|
|Widow, widower or surviving civil partner of Irish citizen||€200|
|Refugee, stateless person or programme refugee||No charge|
How to apply
You must use the current versions of the application forms on the INIS website.
The current application forms are:
- Form 8 (pdf) for a person aged 18 or over.
- Form 9 (pdf) for the minor child of a naturalised Irish citizen.
- Form 10 (pdf) is an electronic form which should be completed online by parents of a minor child of Irish descent or Irish associations.
- Form 11 (pdf) is an electronic form which should be completed online by a parent or guardian of a minor child born in the State who was not entitled to Irish citizenship at birth. The child must be at least 5 years of age when the application is made. The parent or guardian must have 5 years' reckonable residence since the birth of the child, including the full year immediately prior to the date of application.
- Form 5 (pdf) is the annual registration form and declaration of intention to retain Irish citizenship for a naturalised Irish citizen resident outside Ireland.
You can find more information about Irish citizenship and naturalisation on the INIS website.
The supporting documents required depend on your situation; you will need to provide evidence of your identity and nationality (long-form birth certificate and passport). If you are aged 18 or over and applying for naturalisation you must provide, the original of your current passport and any previous passports valid during periods of residence in the State, together with a photocopy of the biometric page of each passport. Allow at least 6 weeks for your passport to be returned to you. Since 19 September 2016, if you are resident in the State, you must be registered for a Public Services Card (PSC) and you must include a copy of your PSC with your application form.
You also need to produce documents relating to your status and the duration of your stay in the State (Certificate of Registration, declaration of refugee status, or the like). If you are a non-EEA national applying for naturalisation your residency stamps are the only evidence which provide proof of your reckonable residence.
If you are an EEA or Swiss citizen applying for naturalisation based on residence, you must send 3 documents proving residency for each year you were resident in Ireland. The documents must show your applicant name and address. Admissible documents include:
- Household bills for electricity, gas, water, telephone, internet and TV
- Documents from the Revenue Commissioners
- Bank statements showing daily transactions
- Documents from the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection
- Employment letters or payslips
- Mortgage agreements
- Tenancy/rental agreements
- Letters from the Private Residential Tenancies Board
- Doctor's letters showing date of registration and dates of attendance
- For a dependent young adult (aged 18-23): A letter from your school or college showing your date of registration and attendance
You can find more information about what documents to submit as proof of residence on the INIS website.
If your application for naturalisation is based on your relationship to an Irish citizen, you will need to produce the documents needed to show that person's status and your relationship to that person (for example birth or naturalisation certificate of Irish spouse, marriage certificate, civil partnership certificate).
The copies of birth, marriage, civil partnership, divorce and other certificates, such as the photo page of your passport, must be certified documents. You will be expected to produce the original documents for inspection at a later stage during the examination of your application.
As well as these documents, if you are 18 or over and applying for naturalisation, you must produce documents relevant to your financial and employment status (copies of 3 pay slips and 3 bank statements dated within the previous 6 months) and confirmation of your income tax situation. You should only send copies of the above documents with your application form.
The information in your application form will be checked against the supporting documentation and any inaccuracy will lead to delays in ruling on your application.
You should not sign the form until you are in the presence of the person who must witness you signing it. The application form contains instructions about who is eligible to be a witness.
Lost or stolen certificate of naturalisation
If your certificate of naturalisation is lost or stolen, you should write to the Citizenship Division of INIS – see ‘Where to apply’ below. You will not get a replacement certificate but instead you will be given a statement confirming your Irish citizenship. There is no fee for this service. If you are applying for an Irish passport you will need this statement to accompany your passport application.
Where to apply
New applications for minors (Form 9, 10 or 11) should be sent to Citizenship Applications, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service, PO Box 12079, Dublin 1. Note: this address is only for lodging new applications. All other correspondence for minors should be sent to the address on the letter sent to you.
New applications for adults (form 8) should be sent to Citizenship Applications, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service, PO Box 73, Tipperary Town. Note: this address is only for lodging new applications. All other citizenship correspondence should be sent to Citizenship Division – see below.