In Ireland, the maximum number of judges that can be appointed to the High Court is 37. This includes the President of the High Court. The President of the Circuit Court and the Chief Justice are also additional Judges of the High Court.
Normally the High Court sits in the capital of Ireland (Dublin) to hear original actions (i.e., cases that are not appeals from a lower court). It also sits in Cork and Galway four times each year; Limerick three times each year; Waterford, Sligo and Dundalk twice each year and Kilkenny and Ennis once a year to hear original actions.
The High Court hears appeals from the Circuit Court, in civil and family law matters, twice a year at the following venues outside Dublin - Carlow, Carrick-on-Shannon, Cavan, Castlebar, Clonmel, Cork, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Kilkenny, Letterkenny, Limerick, Longford, Monaghan, Mullingar, Naas, Nenagh, Portlaoise, Roscommon, Sligo, Tullamore, Tralee, Trim, Waterford, Wexford and Wicklow.
Matters coming before the High Court are normally heard and determined by one judge but the President of the High Court may direct that any case may be heard by three judges in what is known as a divisional court.
The High Court is not a court of local or limited jurisdiction.
Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution) states that the High Court in Ireland has full original jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions, whether of law or fact, civil or criminal. This means that there is no limit or restriction either as to where proceedings should be commenced or how much money can be awarded by the High Court in compensation or damages.
In certain civil cases, such as defamation, assault and false imprisonment, a judge will sit with a jury in the High Court. In all cases, a majority vote of nine of the twelve jurors is sufficient to determine the verdict.
When the High Court is hearing criminal matters it is known as the Central Criminal Court. In criminal matters, the High Court Judge sits with a jury of twelve. However, a verdict need not be unanimous in a case where there are at least eleven jurors if ten of them agree on a verdict after a reasonable time has passed (not less than two hours).
A person refused bail in the District Court can apply to the High Court for bail. A person granted bail in the District Court can apply to the High Court to vary the conditions of bail. A person charged with murder can only apply to the High Court for bail.
The following types and categories of offences must be heard by the Central Criminal Court sitting with a judge and jury:
If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact the Citizens Information Phone Service on 0761 07 4000 (Monday to Friday, 9am to 8pm) or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre.