The law in Ireland provides for the regulation and inspection of pre-school childcare services. Under the Child Care Act 1991 as amended by the Child and Family Agency Act 2013 (pdf) the Child and Family Agency (CFA) is charged with ensuring the health, safety and welfare of pre-school children attending services. Pre-school children are defined by law as “children under 6 years of age, who are not attending a national school or equivalent”. Pre-school services include pre-schools, play groups, day nurseries, crèches, childminders and other similar services looking after more than 3 pre-school children.
Pre-school care providers are required to notify the Child and Family Agency
that they are providing services. In addition, they are required to take all
reasonable measures to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of pre-school
children attending their service. Specifics about the regulation of pre-school
childcare services are set out in the Child Care
(Pre-School Services) (No 2) Regulations 2006 and the Child Care
(Pre-School Services) (No 2) (Amendment) Regulations 2006. These
Regulations set down the high standards of health, safety and welfare that must
be in place before such services can be provided.
Overall, the Department of Children and Youth Affairs has responsibility for these Regulations and for developing policy in this area. The Child and Family Agency is required to inspect and regulate pre-school childcare services and has published a list of tips on choosing a pre-school.
The different types of pre-school childcare services are
described in the Regulations as follows:
Playgroups, crèches, Montessori groups, playschools, naionraí and childminders looking after more than 3 children offer sessional pre-school services. Services normally offered are planned programmes, consisting of up to 3.5 hours per session (for example, a morning or an afternoon). They generally cater for pre-school children in the 0-6 year age bracket.
Part-time day care
This offers a structured day care service for pre-school children for more than 3.5 hours and less than 5 hours per day.
Full day care
This is a structured day care service for more than 5 hours per day. Providers include day nurseries and crèches.
They care for children in the childminder’s own home. (Only childminders caring for more than 3 children are covered by the Child Care Act, 1991.) Throughout the year, they offer this service for the full working day or for different periods during the day. Parents and childminders negotiate their own terms such as hours, rates and duties. As part of the National Childminding Initiative the Department of Children and Youth Affairs has published guidelines for childminders (pdf).
A childminding tax relief applies to people who mind up to 3 children in the minder's own home. No tax is payable on their childminding earnings provided the earnings are less than €15,000 per year. If the earnings exceed this amount tax is payable on the full amount. Childminders must include their childminding income in their annual tax return. They must also notify their local City or County Childcare Committee that they are providing a childminding service.
Pre-school service in a drop-in centre
A pre-school service in a drop-in centre refers to a service where a pre-school child is cared for over a period of not more than 2 hours while the parent or guardian is availing of a service or attending an event. Such services are mainly located in places such as shopping centres or leisure centres.
Certain pre-school care providers are exempt from notifying the Child and Family Agency including:
The Child Care (Pre-School Services) (No 2) Regulations 2006 and the Child Care (Pre-School Services) (No 2) (Amendment) Regulations 2006 are made under Part VII of the Child Care Act 1991 and prescribe the measures which must be in place to meet the requirements of the Act. The Regulations include an Explanatory Guide to Requirements and Procedures for Notification and Inspection which offers guidance on good practice in relation to areas covered by the Regulations which include the following:
Health, welfare and development of the child
A person carrying on a pre-school service shall ensure that each child’s learning, development and well-being is facilitated within the daily life of the service through the provision of the appropriate opportunities, experiences, activities, interaction, materials and equipment, having regard to the age and stage of development of the child and the child’s cultural context.
First aid and medical assistance
There should be a suitably equipped first-aid box for children and arrangements to call medical assistance in an emergency.
Management and staffing
The law makes provision that a person carrying out a pre-school service must ensure that a sufficient number of suitable and competent adults are working directly with the children at all times. (“Suitable and competent”adults are adults aged over 18 with adequate appropriate experience in caring for children under 6 years and/or who have appropriate qualifications to care for these children).
There should be appropriate vetting of all staff, students and volunteers who have access to a child by obtaining references and Garda vetting.
Adult/child and space ratios
|Pre-school service||Age of children||No. of adults||No. of children||Floor area per child|
|Sessional services||0-1 years||1||3||2 sq. metres, maximum of 20 per room|
|1-2.5 years||1||5||2 sq. metres, maximum of 20 per room|
|2.5-6 years||1||10||2 sq. metres, maximum of 20 per room|
|Full/part-time day care*||0-1 year||1||3||3.5 sq metres|
|1-2 years||1||5||2.8 sq. metres|
|2-3 years||1||6||2.35 sq. metres|
|3-6 years||1||8||2.3 sq. metres|
|Drop-in centres||0-6 years||1||4 (only 2 or less under 15 months)||2 sq.metres, maximum of 24 per room|
|Childminders||0-6 years||1||5 (including his/her own)||No more than 2 children under 15 months|
Overnight pre-school service
*When a full day care service also takes children not on a full day basis, sessional service adult numbers apply.
Note: The above ratios may not apply if the service is participating in the Early Childhood Care and Education Scheme.
The Child and Family Agency can limit the maximum number of pre-school children who may be catered for at the same time. This provision is aimed at preventing over-crowding in pre-school services. If the Child and Family Agency proposes to limit numbers, the provider will be notified and has the opportunity to appeal or make representations about this decision.
Anyone providing a pre-school childcare service should ensure that no corporal punishment is inflicted on any child attending the service. There should be written policies and procedures to deal with and to manage a child’s challenging behaviour and to assist the child to manage his or her behaviour.
Register of pre-school children
A pre-school childcare provider should keep a register with details of each child attending the service including name, date of birth, contact numbers for parents and child’s doctors.
Information for parents
Parents should be given information about the service including details of the person in charge and other staff, the adult/child ratios, the maximum numbers and age range of the children, the type of care, facilities, opening hours and fees.
Premises and facilities
Pre-school services (including childminders, drop-in centres, crèches, etc.) are obliged to ensure their standards meet certain standards and provide certain facilities. These rules include ensuring that:
Pre-school childcare providers are required to ensure that the building has suitable and adequate heating, ventilation and lighting; sanitary accommodation, waste storage and disposal
Food and drink
A pre-school service should ensure that suitable, sufficient, nutritious and varied food is available for a pre-school child attending the service and there should be adequate and suitable facilities for the storage, preparation, cooking and serving of food, and adequate and suitable eating utensils. Handwashing, wash-up and sterilising facilities should be provided.
The Department of Health's Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Pre-School Services (pdf) advise that children in day care for more than 5 hours per session (full day care) should be offered at least 2 snacks and 2 meals, including one hot meal.
The provider should ensure that the pre-school children are adequately insured against injury while attending the service.
If you need further information about the standards and regulation of childcare services for pre-school children you should contact the early years/pre-school inspector.
Parents seeking information on local childcare services and other issues relating to the care of young children should contact their local City/County Childcare Committees (CCC).
If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact the Citizens Information Phone Service on 0761 07 4000 (Monday to Friday, 9am to 8pm) or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre.