Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom
The Common Travel Area (CTA) is the commonly used term for a variety of rights which can be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK). It includes more than the basic right to travel freely between both countries.
When the Common Travel Area arrangement began 1922, it was not contained in any legislation. It was an understanding between Ireland and the UK based on their common history and the difficulties applying immigration controls because of the shared border. Over time, some of the rights came to be included in different pieces of legislation in both Ireland and the UK.
While the Common Travel Area is recognised under the Treaty of Amsterdam, it is not dependant on the European Union and the continuing membership of both countries.
On 8 May 2019, the Irish and UK governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding (pdf) reaffirming the Common Travel Area and identifying the rights and privileges of Irish and UK citizens within the CTA. It also reaffirms the commitment to maintain the CTA following Brexit (pdf).
The Common Travel Area does not relate to goods or customs issues. The present movement of goods, the absence of customs posts on the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland, and the absence of customs duties between the UK and Ireland comes from both countries’ membership of the European Union.
Your rights within the Common Travel Area
Common Travel Area rights can only be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the UK. If you are not a citizen of Ireland or the UK, you will not be able to exercise Common Travel Area rights.
The UK, for the purposes of the Common Travel Area, covers England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
Irish and UK citizens have the right to live, travel, work and study within the Common Travel Area.
Irish and UK citizens can live in either country and enjoy associated rights and privileges, including:
- Access to social benefits
- Access to healthcare
- Access to social housing supports
- The right to vote in certain elections
Border Control and the Common Travel Area
There are no passport controls in operation for Irish and UK citizens travelling between the 2 countries. You do not need to have a passport to enter the other country. However, all air and sea carriers require some form of identification and some regard a passport as the only valid identification. Immigration authorities may also require you to have valid official photo-identification which shows your nationality. As you are being asked to prove that you are an Irish or UK citizen who is entitled to avail of the Common Travel Area arrangements, it is advisable to travel with your passport.
The Common Travel Area also involves some co-operation on matters relating to immigration issues. A third country national, for example, may be refused permission to enter Ireland if they intend to travel onwards to the UK and they would not qualify for admission to the UK under the Aliens (Amendment) Order 1975. Irish immigration officers have the power to carry out checks on people arriving in the State from the UK and to refuse them entry to the State on the same grounds as apply to people arriving from outside the Common Travel Area. These checks are carried out selectively.
In December 2011, the Irish and UK governments agreed measures to secure the external Common Travel Area border. This includes exchanging biographic and biometric visa data and co-operating on information about failed asylum seekers. There is a joint UK-Ireland Common Travel Area Forum which implements these measures.
People with UK visas or residence permits
If you are a citizen of a country whose nationals need a visa to enter Ireland and you have a valid UK visa or residence permit, you may be required to have a visa to enter Ireland before you arrive in Ireland. The Short Stay Visa Waiver Programme allows nationals of a number of Eastern European, Middle East and Asian countries who have a short-term UK visa to come to Ireland without the need for a separate Irish visa. This programme has been extended to 31 October 2021.
Reciprocal visa arrangements: A British Irish Visa Scheme applies to visitors from China since 20 October 2014 and to visitors from India since 9 February 2015. This scheme allows visitors from these countries to travel freely within the Common Travel Area (in this case, Ireland and the UK but not the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man), using either an Irish or UK visa.
Brexit and the Common Travel Area
The UK’s withdrawal from the European Union (EU) will not affect the rights of Irish citizens and UK citizens within the Common Travel Area. The right to live, work and access public services in the Common Travel Area will be protected, regardless of the outcome of the Brexit negotiations.
The Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Consequential Provisions) Act 2019 places many of the Common Travel Area rights in legislation for the first time, particularly in the event of a no-deal Brexit. The Act empowers the relevant ministers to legislate in the areas of providing equal access to healthcare and social welfare.
The UK Government has confirmed that no checks or tariffs will apply to goods entering Northern Ireland from Ireland in a no-deal Brexit for an initial period of 12 months. However, tariffs will apply to goods entering the rest of the UK from Ireland.
The draft withdrawal agreement between the UK and the European Union also recognises the Common Travel Area in its Protocol which deals with Ireland and Northern Ireland. Article 2 provides for the continued operation of the Common Travel Area. While the draft Withdrawal Agreement has not been approved by the UK Parliament, it can be expected that these protections will be included in any withdrawal agreement which may be reached.
You can read more about the UK leaving the EU in our document What is Brexit?, on our website.
You can get more information on the Common Travel Area from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and on legal matters and rights from gov.ie.