Renting and COVID-19
COVID-19 has had a huge impact on jobs and incomes across Ireland.
Since March 2020, there have been a number of different protections put in place to support tenants during the COVID-19 pandemic, some of which have expired and others which overlap, see below.
In October 2020, an eviction ban was introduced for any period when people’s movement is restricted to 5 kilometres from their home as part of COVID-19 restrictions. This means that tenants cannot be evicted when the country is at Level 5 of COVID-19 restrictions from 31 December 2020 to 31 January 2021 and for a ten-day grace period after this.
There are also rental laws to protect tenants economically affected by COVID-19, who have fallen into rent arrears and are at risk of losing their tenancy. These protections include a rent freeze and a 90-day notice period when ending a tenancy. The protections ran from 2 August 2020 to 10 January 2021 under the Residential Tenancies and Valuation Act 2020, and were then replaced with the Planning and Development, and Residential Tenancies Act 2020 from 11 January 2021 to 12 April 2021. The steps landlords and tenants must follow to access these protections changed under the most recent legislation see Rent arrears due to the financial impact of COVID-19 below.
In March 2020, a range of protections were put in place for people affected by the pandemic under the Emergency Measures in the Public Interest (COVID-19) Act 2020. These protections, which included a ban on eviction notices and rent increases, have now expired. However, they still have an effect on notice periods and the calculation of Part 4 tenancies, see below.
Termination of tenancy
Normally, if your landlord wants you to leave your accommodation, they must serve you with a notice of termination. This can be for a number of reasons.
However, since October 2020, if COVID-19 restrictions lead to an eviction ban, your landlord can issue you with a notice of termination while the ban is in place, but you cannot be evicted except in certain circumstances.
Part 4 tenancies
When a tenancy has lasted more than 6 months, the tenancy becomes a Part 4 tenancy. This means the tenancy can only be ended for specific reasons until the end of a 4 or 6 year period (depending on when the tenancy started).
During COVID-19 emergency periods, Part 4 tenancies and further part 4 tenancies cannot start. And these emergency periods do not count towards the time spent as a tenant for Part 4 or further part 4 tenancies, if the person is subject to a notice of termination or awaiting eviction. The emergency periods cover:
- 27 March 2020 to 1 August 2020
- 21 October 2020 to 1 December 2020
- 31 December 2020 to 31 January 2021
If you want to leave
The emergency legislation does not affect your right to end your tenancy. You should read your lease agreement or tenancy agreement for information on how to end your tenancy. If you are in a fixed term lease, you may lose your deposit if you leave your accommodation before the end of the fixed period.
Evictions when COVID-19 restrictions limit movement to 5km
An eviction ban will automatically kick-in any time people’s movement is restricted to 5 kilometres from their home, as part of COVID-19 restrictions. This happened when Ireland moved to Level 5 COVID 19 restrictions, which means there is a ban on evictions from 31 December 2020 to 31 January 2021, and for a ten-day grace period after this.
If your landlord has given you a valid notice to quit (also called an eviction notice), the notice is paused while these restrictions are in place, and also for a further 10 days after the restrictions are lifted, unless the notice to quit is for the following reasons:
- Anti-social behaviour
- Acting in a way that would invalidate a house insurance policy
- Acting in a way that would cause substantial damage to the accommodation
- Using the accommodation for commercial or other non-residential purposes
This means that the time you have left before you are due to be evicted is extended by 10 days plus the amount of time Ireland is at Level 5.
If the notice of termination is for one of the four reasons above, the eviction can proceed once the appropriate notice period expires.
These rules are set out in the Residential Tenancies Act 2020. The Residential Tenancies Board (RTB) has a guidance document and FAQ’s about this legislation, where you can get general information about the eviction ban, as well as examples of how it applies.
If you are threatened with eviction, you should call Threshold for advice. See 'Further information and contacts' below for other organisations that might be able to help you.
From 2 August 2020, rent increases can take effect for tenants who have not been financially impacted by COVID-19. They must follow the usual rent setting and review rules inside and outside a Rent Pressure Zone (RPZ). If your rent is increased, no backdating is allowed.
If you have been financially impacted by COVID-19 and meet the requirements of the Planning and Development, and Residential Tenancies Act 2020, your rent cannot be increased before 13 April 2021.
Rent decreases continue to be allowed.
This applies to all types of tenancies.
Difficulty paying rent
If you cannot afford to pay rent, you should discuss this with your landlord. Your landlord may agree to allow you to pay a reduced amount until your situation improves. You should not stop paying rent completely, and if you cannot pay the full amount of rent due, you should talk to your landlord or agent before you start paying a reduced amount.
You can read our document on social welfare and COVID-19 for information on the social welfare payments available. You can also find out more about the Housing Assistance Payment (HAP) and Rent Supplement.
To qualify for Rent Supplement you must:
- Be working (or self-employed) less than 30 hours per week
- Be habitually resident in Ireland
- Be renting for 6 out of the past 12 months (or in receipt of Rent Supplement in the past 12 months)
- Have been able to afford the rent when you took up the tenancy
- Be in a bona fide tenancy
- Pass a means test
A bona fide tenancy is where a genuine tenancy is in place and was in place before your claim for Rent Supplement. For example, if the house you live in is owned by a close relative and you have been living there without paying rent, you will not qualify for Rent Supplement for that accommodation.
If your spouse or partner is working or self-employed for over 30 hours per week, you will not be eligible for Rent Supplement.
If you are a HAP tenant and you have lost some or all of your self-employment, you should contact your local authority. Make sure that you have applied for any social welfare payment you might be entitled to before contacting your local authority. If your income has decreased, the local authority will re-assess your contribution to your rent.
Rent arrears due to the financial impact of COVID-19
During periods when COVID-19 restrictions limit people’s movement to 5 kilometres from their home, you cannot be evicted for falling into rent arrears.
In addition the Planning and Development, and Residential Tenancies Act 2020 (which replaced the Residential Tenancies and Valuation Act 2020) sets out current protections for tenants who have fallen into rent arrears due to COVID-19, and are at risk of losing their tenancy. They include a rent freeze and an increased 90-day notice period when ending a tenancy.
The rental protections may apply to you if you are:
- Getting Illness Benefit for a COVID-19 absence, or
- Getting the Employment Wage Subsidy Scheme or any social welfare payment or State support to help with loss of earnings caused by COVID-19 (including Rent Supplement or Supplementary Welfare Allowance)
- at risk of losing your tenancy
Rules and requirements for landlords and tenants facing rent arrears due to COVID-19
There are rules and requirements for both landlords and tenants facing rent arrears due to COVID-19. The process is broken down into steps starting from the point where a tenant has fallen into rent arrears. If the tenant completes the required steps, the landlord cannot increase the rent or terminate the tenancy before 13 April 2021. Failure to complete each step may mean that the protections will not apply to the tenant, or could lead to the notice of termination being deemed invalid. Go to the RTB website for full details of each step.
If these rental protections applied to you under the previous legislation for the emergency period that ran from 1 August 2020 to 10 January 2021, you may have to meet additional requirements to benefit from the current legislation that extends these protections until 13 April 2021, see 'Requirements for tenants transitioning from the old rules' below.
There are also some protections for landlords under the new legislation, as well as a number of circumstances where the rental protections don’t apply, see below for more information.
Process for landlords and tenants
To access these rental protections, you must follow the steps below, if any step is not completed in the required format the protections will not apply.
- Landlord issues a written rent arrears warning notice to the tenant to pay the rent arrears. Tenants must be given at least 28 days to pay the arrears. The RTB has a sample warning notice for rent arrears (pdf) on its website.
- Landlord provides a copy of the written rent arrears warning notice to the RTB. The 28-day period will begin from the date when both the tenant and RTB have received the written warning notice.
- RTB writes to the landlord confirming it has received a copy of the rent arrears warning notice, and gives the landlord information about their protections under the rules, see below. The RTB also writes to the tenant confirming it has received a copy of the rent arrears warning notice, and gives the tenant information on income supports, how to get advice from the Money Advice and Budgeting Service (MABS), a link to the Self-Declaration form (pdf) and the requirements they must meet to benefit from these protections.
- Tenant signs and submits a Self-Declaration form (pdf) to the RTB and their landlord. This form includes a request to the RTB asking for their help to get advice from the Money Advice and Budgeting Service (MABS), which must be completed. Tenant also writes to their landlord asking them for a consultation, so they can make an arrangement to pay their rent. This must be done within 5 days of making the Self-Declaration.
- RTB helps the tenant to get advice from MABS.
- If the landlord does not get a Self-Declaration form from the tenant, the landlord can serve a notice of termination for rent arrears giving 28 days’ notice. This can only be done once the 28-day warning notice for rent arrears has expired. If a landlord does receive a copy of the Self-Declaration form from the tenant confirming that they cannot pay their rent due to the financial impact of COVID-19, the landlord can still serve a valid notice of termination (after the 28-day warning notice for rent arrears has expired). However, the tenant does not have to vacate their accommodation before 13 April 2021 and the tenant must be given at least 90 days’ notice. Also, the landlord cannot increase the rent until 13 April 2021.
- Landlord sends the RTB a copy of the Notice of Termination that they have sent to the tenant for rent arrears on the same day.
- RTB contacts the tenant with information on the dispute resolution options available to them. The RTB will notify the tenant of their right to refer a tenancy termination dispute to the RTB within 28 days of receiving the notice of termination.
Tenants and landlords should keep copies of all correspondence they send and receive, as well as all documentation proving when documents were issued and sent. They can do this for example, by keeping postal record slips or emails.
Requirements for tenants transitioning from the old rules
Tenants who qualified for these protections under the previous legislation, which expired on 10 January 2021, may have to meet additional requirements under the new legislation. This is because some of the previously optional rules are mandatory under the new legislation. These additional requirements must be completed by midnight on 15 January 2021 and include:
- Asking the RTB to help them get advice from the Money Advice and Budgeting Service (MABS)
- Asking their landlord for a consultation, so they can make an arrangement to pay their rent, and notifying the RTB of this
If you have already met these requirements under the previous legislation the new protections automatically apply, and the rent cannot be increased or the tenancy terminated before 13 April 2021.
You will not be able to benefit from these rental protections if:
- You have outstanding rental payments of 5 months or more
- You do not contact the RTB asking them to help you get MABS advice
- Your landlord invokes their rights under the legislation, see landlords’ protections below.
Landlords’ protections under the new rules
A landlord can submit a Self-Declaration form to the RTB to stop the tenant’s protections under this legislation. This is only possible if at least one of the following apply:
- The tenant has outstanding rental payments of 5 months or more
- The tenant did not give the RTB or MABS the information it needed to provide timely MABS advice
- The tenant did not met the terms of the rent payment arrangement they made with the landlord
- The protections under the Act would cause undue financial hardship to the
landlord. A landlord can only claim undue financial hardship if one of the
- They are getting a qualifying COVID-19 payment
- The rent is their only income
- They will be unable to pay their mortgage on the rented property if they don’t get the rent from the tenants
The landlord must include supporting documentation with the Self-Declaration form and send a copy of it and the form to the tenant as well as the RTB.
There are 2 stages to the RTB’s dispute resolution process:
- Stage 1 is confidential mediation or adjudication. If the landlord or tenant do not want to accept the mediator’s or adjudicator’s decision, the dispute can be appealed to Stage 2.
- Stage 2 is a hearing by a 3-person Tenancy Tribunal.
During COVID-19, dispute resolution applications are handled in a number of ways to comply with COVID-19 restrictions. Telephone mediation is still available and has not been affected by the restrictions. The majority of adjudication cases dealt with since March have been resolved using a paper-based process. However, the RTB can now hear adjudication hearings virtually, and intends that most hearings will be held in this way in the future. Face-to-face adjudication hearings have recommenced but only in limited and urgent circumstances. Tribunal hearings are now also available virtually. The RTB has published information about virtual hearings and how the dispute resolution process works during COVID-19.
If you are having difficulties with your tenancy, contact the RTB for details of the dispute resolution process.
Threshold’s Tenancy Protection Service provides advice and support to tenants where there is a tenancy problem or where a tenancy is at risk. Threshold advisors can mediate with landlords and also help with applications for rent supplement. Call 1800 454 454, 9am-9pm, Monday to Friday for more information.